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Home   COVID-19 treatment studies for Nitazoxanide  COVID-19 treatment studies for Nitazoxanide  C19 studies: Nitazoxanide  Nitazoxanide   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
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Other Treatments Global Adoption
Outcomes in COVID-19 nitazoxanide studies
0 0.5 1 1.5+ All studies 34% 11 3,025 Improvement, Studies, Patients Relative Risk Mortality 41% 5 1,372 Ventilation 82% 3 588 ICU admission 28% 3 841 Hospitalization 60% 5 1,359 Recovery 5% 4 1,233 Viral clearance 52% 6 790 RCTs 7% 8 2,374 RCT mortality 24% 3 834 Peer-reviewed 57% 8 2,027 Early 33% 7 2,469 Late 12% 4 556 Nitazoxanide for COVID-19 c19nitazoxanide.com May 2022 Favorsnitazoxanide Favorscontrol after exclusions
0 0.5 1 1.5+ ALL STUDIES MORTALITY VENTILATION ICU ADMISSION HOSPITALIZATION RECOVERY VIRAL CLEARANCE RCTS RCT MORTALITY PEER-REVIEWED After Exclusions ALL STUDIES All Early Late Nitazoxanide for COVID-19 C19NITAZOXANIDE.COM MAY 2022
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Rocco (RCT) -404% 5.04 [0.24-104] ICU 2/194 0/198 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Cadegiani 88% 0.12 [0.01-2.52] death 0/357 2/137 Elalfy 87% 0.13 [0.06-0.27] viral+ 7/62 44/51 CT​2 Silva (SB RCT) 26% 0.74 [0.38-1.41] viral+ 23 (n) 13 (n) Rossignol (DB RCT) -206% 3.06 [0.13-74.6] death 1/184 0/195 ANTICOV (RCT) -188% 2.88 [1.05-7.85] progression 15/462 5/443 OT​1 CT​2 Medhat (RCT) 56% 0.44 [0.22-0.88] viral+ 77 (n) 73 (n) Tau​2 = 1.12, I​2 = 80.8%, p = 0.43 Early treatment 33% 0.67 [0.25-1.78] 25/1,359 51/1,110 33% improvement Blum (DB RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.07-1.50] death 2/25 6/25 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Calderón 68% 0.32 [0.04-2.49] death 1/17 5/27 OT​1 Fowotade (RCT) -11% 1.11 [0.61-2.03] no recov. 31 (n) 26 (n) CT​2 Rocco (DB RCT) -5% 1.05 [0.30-3.50] death 6/202 5/203 Tau​2 = 0.03, I​2 = 7.9%, p = 0.65 Late treatment 12% 0.88 [0.52-1.50] 9/275 16/281 12% improvement All studies 34% 0.66 [0.34-1.27] 34/1,634 67/1,391 34% improvement 11 nitazoxanide COVID-19 studies c19nitazoxanide.com May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.73, I​2 = 74.1%, p = 0.21 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) 1 OT: comparison with other treatment2 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors nitazoxanide Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Rocco (RCT) -404% 5.04 [0.24-104] ICU 2/194 0/198 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Cadegiani 88% 0.12 [0.01-2.52] death 0/357 2/137 Elalfy 87% 0.13 [0.06-0.27] viral+ 7/62 44/51 CT​2 Silva (SB RCT) 26% 0.74 [0.38-1.41] viral+ 23 (n) 13 (n) Rossignol (DB RCT) -206% 3.06 [0.13-74.6] death 1/184 0/195 Medhat (RCT) 56% 0.44 [0.22-0.88] viral+ 77 (n) 73 (n) Tau​2 = 0.71, I​2 = 72.1%, p = 0.091 Early treatment 55% 0.45 [0.18-1.14] 10/897 46/667 55% improvement Blum (DB RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.07-1.50] death 2/25 6/25 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Calderón 68% 0.32 [0.04-2.49] death 1/17 5/27 OT​1 Fowotade (RCT) -11% 1.11 [0.61-2.03] no recov. 31 (n) 26 (n) CT​2 Rocco (DB RCT) -5% 1.05 [0.30-3.50] death 6/202 5/203 Tau​2 = 0.03, I​2 = 7.9%, p = 0.65 Late treatment 12% 0.88 [0.52-1.50] 9/275 16/281 12% improvement All studies 46% 0.54 [0.29-1.02] 19/1,172 62/948 46% improvement 10 nitazoxanide COVID-19 studies after exclusions c19nitazoxanide.com May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.57, I​2 = 68.8%, p = 0.059 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) 1 OT: comparison with other treatment2 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors nitazoxanide Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Cadegiani 88% 0.12 [0.01-2.52] 0/357 2/137 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Rossignol (DB RCT) -206% 3.06 [0.13-74.6] 1/184 0/195 Tau​2 = 2.67, I​2 = 51.4%, p = 0.75 Early treatment 41% 0.59 [0.02-13.8] 1/541 2/332 41% improvement Blum (DB RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.07-1.50] 2/25 6/25 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Calderón 68% 0.32 [0.04-2.49] 1/17 5/27 OT​1 Rocco (DB RCT) -5% 1.05 [0.30-3.50] 6/202 5/203 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.23 Late treatment 40% 0.60 [0.26-1.39] 9/244 16/255 40% improvement All studies 41% 0.59 [0.27-1.30] 10/785 18/587 41% improvement 5 nitazoxanide COVID-19 mortality results c19nitazoxanide.com May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.2 1 OT: comparison with other treatment Favors nitazoxanide Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Cadegiani 97% 0.03 [0.00-0.51] 0/357 9/137 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.015 Early treatment 97% 0.03 [0.00-0.51] 0/357 9/137 97% improvement Blum (DB RCT) 62% 0.38 [0.11-1.25] 3/25 8/25 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Calderón 87% 0.13 [0.01-2.33] 0/17 4/27 OT​1 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.044 Late treatment 68% 0.32 [0.11-0.97] 3/42 12/52 68% improvement All studies 82% 0.18 [0.04-0.76] 3/399 21/189 82% improvement 3 nitazoxanide COVID-19 mechanical ventilation results c19nitazoxanide.com May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.50, I​2 = 27.5%, p = 0.019 1 OT: comparison with other treatment Favors nitazoxanide Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Rocco (RCT) -404% 5.04 [0.24-104] 2/194 0/198 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.3 Early treatment -404% 5.04 [0.24-104] 2/194 0/198 -404% improvement Calderón 59% 0.41 [0.25-0.59] 0/17 16/27 OT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Rocco (DB RCT) 31% 0.69 [0.40-1.17] 20/202 30/203 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.15 Late treatment 32% 0.68 [0.40-1.15] 20/219 46/230 32% improvement All studies 28% 0.72 [0.43-1.21] 22/413 46/428 28% improvement 3 nitazoxanide COVID-19 ICU results c19nitazoxanide.com May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.22 1 OT: comparison with other treatment Favors nitazoxanide Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Rocco (RCT) -2% 1.02 [0.30-3.47] hosp. 5/194 5/198 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Cadegiani 99% 0.01 [0.00-0.17] hosp. 0/357 27/137 Rossignol (DB RCT) 79% 0.21 [0.02-1.80] hosp. 1/184 5/195 Tau​2 = 3.68, I​2 = 78.4%, p = 0.16 Early treatment 83% 0.17 [0.01-2.00] 6/735 37/530 83% improvement Blum (DB RCT) 56% 0.44 [0.22-0.89] hosp. time 25 (n) 25 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Calderón 52% 0.48 [0.29-0.82] hosp. time 17 (n) 27 (n) OT​1 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.0004 Late treatment 53% 0.47 [0.31-0.71] 0/42 0/52 53% improvement All studies 60% 0.40 [0.19-0.84] 6/777 37/582 60% improvement 5 nitazoxanide COVID-19 hospitalization results c19nitazoxanide.com May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.34, I​2 = 57.2%, p = 0.015 1 OT: comparison with other treatment Favors nitazoxanide Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Rocco (RCT) -404% 5.04 [0.24-104] ICU 2/194 0/198 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Cadegiani 88% 0.12 [0.01-2.52] death 0/357 2/137 Rossignol (DB RCT) -206% 3.06 [0.13-74.6] death 1/184 0/195 ANTICOV (RCT) -188% 2.88 [1.05-7.85] progression 15/462 5/443 OT​1 CT​2 Tau​2 = 0.54, I​2 = 26.7%, p = 0.32 Early treatment -95% 1.95 [0.53-7.22] 18/1,197 7/973 -95% improvement Blum (DB RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.07-1.50] death 2/25 6/25 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Calderón 68% 0.32 [0.04-2.49] death 1/17 5/27 OT​1 Rocco (DB RCT) -5% 1.05 [0.30-3.50] death 6/202 5/203 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.23 Late treatment 40% 0.60 [0.26-1.39] 9/244 16/255 40% improvement All studies 3% 0.97 [0.39-2.41] 27/1,441 23/1,228 3% improvement 7 nitazoxanide COVID-19 serious outcomes c19nitazoxanide.com May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.60, I​2 = 44.1%, p = 0.95 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) 1 OT: comparison with other treatment2 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors nitazoxanide Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Rocco (RCT) -16% 1.16 [0.84-1.59] no recov. 59/194 52/198 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Rossignol (DB RCT) -7% 1.07 [0.46-2.49] recov. time 184 (n) 195 (n) Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.37 Early treatment -15% 1.15 [0.85-1.54] 59/378 52/393 -15% improvement Fowotade (RCT) -11% 1.11 [0.61-2.03] no recov. 31 (n) 26 (n) CT​1 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Rocco (DB RCT) 27% 0.73 [0.58-0.90] no disch. 202 (n) 203 (n) Tau​2 = 0.04, I​2 = 45.6%, p = 0.33 Late treatment 17% 0.83 [0.57-1.21] 0/233 0/229 17% improvement All studies 5% 0.95 [0.70-1.28] 59/611 52/622 5% improvement 4 nitazoxanide COVID-19 recovery results c19nitazoxanide.com May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.05, I​2 = 54.8%, p = 0.75 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors nitazoxanide Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Rocco (RCT) 12% 0.88 [0.80-0.96] viral+ 194 (n) 198 (n) Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Elalfy 87% 0.13 [0.06-0.27] viral+ 7/62 44/51 CT​1 Silva (SB RCT) 26% 0.74 [0.38-1.41] viral+ 23 (n) 13 (n) Medhat (RCT) 56% 0.44 [0.22-0.88] viral+ 77 (n) 73 (n) Tau​2 = 0.58, I​2 = 90.3%, p = 0.055 Early treatment 54% 0.46 [0.21-1.02] 7/356 44/335 54% improvement Blum (DB RCT) 90% 0.10 [0.01-1.78] viral+ 0/23 4/19 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Fowotade (RCT) 5% 0.95 [0.34-2.64] viral load 31 (n) 26 (n) CT​1 Tau​2 = 1.31, I​2 = 52.6%, p = 0.48 Late treatment 53% 0.47 [0.06-3.59] 0/54 4/45 53% improvement All studies 52% 0.48 [0.25-0.94] 7/410 48/380 52% improvement 6 nitazoxanide COVID-19 viral clearance results c19nitazoxanide.com May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.49, I​2 = 84.9%, p = 0.032 1 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors nitazoxanide Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Rocco (RCT) -404% 5.04 [0.24-104] ICU 2/194 0/198 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Silva (SB RCT) 26% 0.74 [0.38-1.41] viral+ 23 (n) 13 (n) Rossignol (DB RCT) -206% 3.06 [0.13-74.6] death 1/184 0/195 ANTICOV (RCT) -188% 2.88 [1.05-7.85] progression 15/462 5/443 OT​1 CT​2 Medhat (RCT) 56% 0.44 [0.22-0.88] viral+ 77 (n) 73 (n) Tau​2 = 0.50, I​2 = 64.3%, p = 0.84 Early treatment -10% 1.10 [0.47-2.59] 18/940 5/922 -10% improvement Blum (DB RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.07-1.50] death 2/25 6/25 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Fowotade (RCT) -11% 1.11 [0.61-2.03] no recov. 31 (n) 26 (n) CT​2 Rocco (DB RCT) -5% 1.05 [0.30-3.50] death 6/202 5/203 Tau​2 = 0.03, I​2 = 8.5%, p = 0.86 Late treatment 5% 0.95 [0.55-1.63] 8/258 11/254 5% improvement All studies 7% 0.93 [0.56-1.55] 26/1,198 16/1,176 7% improvement 8 nitazoxanide COVID-19 Randomized Controlled Trials c19nitazoxanide.com May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.22, I​2 = 48.7%, p = 0.8 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) 1 OT: comparison with other treatment2 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors nitazoxanide Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Rossignol (DB RCT) -206% 3.06 [0.13-74.6] 1/184 0/195 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.5 Early treatment -206% 3.06 [0.13-74.6] 1/184 0/195 -206% improvement Blum (DB RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.07-1.50] 2/25 6/25 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Rocco (DB RCT) -5% 1.05 [0.30-3.50] 6/202 5/203 Tau​2 = 0.19, I​2 = 28.2%, p = 0.46 Late treatment 35% 0.65 [0.22-1.98] 8/227 11/228 35% improvement All studies 24% 0.76 [0.29-1.97] 9/411 11/423 24% improvement 3 nitazoxanide COVID-19 RCT mortality results c19nitazoxanide.com May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.07, I​2 = 8.2%, p = 0.59 Favors nitazoxanide Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Rocco (RCT) -404% 5.04 [0.24-104] ICU 2/194 0/198 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Cadegiani 88% 0.12 [0.01-2.52] death 0/357 2/137 Elalfy 87% 0.13 [0.06-0.27] viral+ 7/62 44/51 CT​2 Rossignol (DB RCT) -206% 3.06 [0.13-74.6] death 1/184 0/195 Medhat (RCT) 56% 0.44 [0.22-0.88] viral+ 77 (n) 73 (n) Tau​2 = 0.84, I​2 = 67.1%, p = 0.11 Early treatment 61% 0.39 [0.13-1.23] 10/874 46/654 61% improvement Blum (DB RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.07-1.50] death 2/25 6/25 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Calderón 68% 0.32 [0.04-2.49] death 1/17 5/27 OT​1 Rocco (DB RCT) -5% 1.05 [0.30-3.50] death 6/202 5/203 Tau​2 = 0.00, I​2 = 0.0%, p = 0.23 Late treatment 40% 0.60 [0.26-1.39] 9/244 16/255 40% improvement All studies 57% 0.43 [0.20-0.93] 19/1,118 62/909 57% improvement 8 nitazoxanide COVID-19 peer reviewed trials c19nitazoxanide.com May 2022 Tau​2 = 0.58, I​2 = 57.5%, p = 0.031 Effect extraction pre-specified(most serious outcome) 1 OT: comparison with other treatment2 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors nitazoxanide Favors control 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Rocco (RCT) -404% 5.04 [0.24-104] ICU 2/194 0/198 Improvement, RR [CI] Treatment Control Rocco (RCT) -2% 1.02 [0.30-3.47] hosp. 5/194 5/198 Rocco (RCT) -16% 1.16 [0.84-1.59] no recov. 59/194 52/198 Rocco (RCT) 12% 0.88 [0.80-0.96] viral+ 194 (n) 198 (n) Rocco (RCT) 14% 0.86 [0.77-0.96] viral+ 136/194 162/198 Cadegiani 88% 0.12 [0.01-2.52] death 0/357 2/137 Cadegiani 97% 0.03 [0.00-0.51] ventilation 0/357 9/137 Cadegiani 99% 0.01 [0.00-0.17] hosp. 0/357 27/137 Elalfy 87% 0.13 [0.06-0.27] viral+ 7/62 44/51 CT​2 Elalfy 58% 0.42 [0.31-0.56] viral+ 26/62 51/51 CT​2 Silva (SB RCT) 26% 0.74 [0.38-1.41] viral+ 23 (n) 13 (n) Silva (SB RCT) 38% 0.62 [0.39-0.97] viral+ 12/23 11/13 Rossignol (DB RCT) -206% 3.06 [0.13-74.6] death 1/184 0/195 Rossignol (DB RCT) 79% 0.21 [0.02-1.80] hosp. 1/184 5/195 Rossignol (DB RCT) 85% 0.15 [0.02-1.22] severe case 1/184 7/195 Rossignol (DB RCT) 84% 0.16 [0.02-1.29] severe case 1/112 7/126 Rossignol (DB RCT) -7% 1.07 [0.46-2.49] recov. time 184 (n) 195 (n) ANTICOV (RCT) -188% 2.88 [1.05-7.85] progression 15/462 5/443 OT​1 CT​2 Medhat (RCT) 56% 0.44 [0.22-0.88] viral+ 77 (n) 73 (n) Blum (DB RCT) 67% 0.33 [0.07-1.50] death 2/25 6/25 Blum (DB RCT) 62% 0.38 [0.11-1.25] ventilation 3/25 8/25 Blum (DB RCT) 56% 0.44 [0.22-0.89] hosp. time 25 (n) 25 (n) Blum (DB RCT) 90% 0.10 [0.01-1.78] viral+ 0/23 4/19 Calderón 68% 0.32 [0.04-2.49] death 1/17 5/27 OT​1 Calderón 87% 0.13 [0.01-2.33] ventilation 0/17 4/27 OT​1 Calderón 59% 0.41 [0.25-0.59] ICU 0/17 16/27 OT​1 Calderón 52% 0.48 [0.29-0.82] hosp. time 17 (n) 27 (n) OT​1 Fowotade (RCT) -11% 1.11 [0.61-2.03] no recov. 31 (n) 26 (n) CT​2 Fowotade (RCT) -87% 1.87 [0.88-3.98] no recov. 31 (n) 26 (n) CT​2 Fowotade (RCT) 5% 0.95 [0.34-2.64] viral load 31 (n) 26 (n) CT​2 Rocco (DB RCT) -5% 1.05 [0.30-3.50] death 6/202 5/203 Rocco (DB RCT) 31% 0.69 [0.40-1.17] ICU 20/202 30/203 Rocco (DB RCT) 40% 0.60 [0.35-1.02] oxygen 22/202 33/203 Rocco (DB RCT) 64% 0.36 [0.29-0.45] no improv. 202 (n) 203 (n) Rocco (DB RCT) 34% 0.66 [0.38-1.15] no improv. 202 (n) 203 (n) Rocco (DB RCT) 27% 0.73 [0.58-0.90] no disch. 202 (n) 203 (n) Rocco (DB RCT) 8% 0.92 [0.55-1.52] no disch. 202 (n) 203 (n) nitazoxanide COVID-19 outcomes c19nitazoxanide.com May 2022 1 OT: comparison with other treatment2 CT: study uses combined treatment Favors nitazoxanide Favors control
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are both valuable and complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. Denying the efficacy of any method increases mortality, morbidity, collateral damage, and the risk of endemic status. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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